Friday, November 30, 2007

Who Hardened Pharaoh's Heart?

G.K. Beale has written the following helpful article dealing with the hardening of Pharaoh's heart. In the article he seeks to understand how Paul is using the example of Pharaoh in Romans 9. In specific Beale's aim in this article is to help answer the following four questions (Click Here to read the article) :

(1) Who is the ultimate cause of Pharaoh's hardening?

(2) If the hardening is at all associated with God, is it an unconditional or conditional judgment with respect to Pharaoh's sin?

(3) When Paul refutes the idea that God is unjust (v 14) in rejecting Esau rather than Jacob before they were born (vv 10-13), does he give an understandable explanation for this refutation (Gk. "gar," v 17), or does he merely refute the idea without offering any rationale in defense of God's rejection?

(4) Does the hardening involve God's dealing with certain individuals or nations only on the plane of history or does it have reference to a general principle concerning God's eternal rejection of man from

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

This is a great article by Beale. I can't say I agree with all of his conclusions, but the cogency and strength of his argument must be dealt with. Thanks for posting thin.

Theodore Wesley